DBMS vs File System

To understand the difference between DBMS vs File System, we should know the disadvantages of file processing system first.

Disadvantages of File Processing System –

  1. Duplicate Data – As all files are independent of each other, so, duplicate data may be present in more than one files.
  2. Inconsistency – Inconsistency means different copies of same data that are not matching. Data may be inconsistent in file processing system.
  3. Poor Data Integrity – Data integrity refers to the overall completeness, accuracy and consistency of data. But in Processing system, Poor data integrity often develops.
  4. Data is isolated and separated – Data are separated in various files. SO, if it is needed to extract data from 2 different files, it will be require to determine which parts of each of the files are needed and how files are related to one another.
  5. Application Programs are dependent on file formats – In processing suystem, the physical formats of file are entered in application program that process the files. Change in the file format result in program updates and a change which is time consuming and error prone.
  6. Poor Data Security- Data is stored in different files causing the security problems
  7. Difficult to represent complex object – Some data objects may be of variable length which might produce difficulty in representation in files.

Comparison of File System vs Database Systems (Limitations to File System)–

If data is too large, it will create so many problems.

1. Too complex to access the data using Physical Details.
Suppose a university has 500 GB of data having files F1,F2,….,Fn. If we want to retrieve the student details who scored more than 80%,then the Program will require the low level details or physical details.
The physical details will be:
   • Location
   • Name of the file
   • Format of the file
To avoid this problem DBMS provides Data Independency. User can access the data from database without knowing any physical details
                           Select * 
                          From table 
                        Where condition
2. If data is too huge, more IO cost is required to access the data.
Suppose that one of the bank officers needs to find out the names of all customers who live within a particular postal-code area. The officer asks the data-processing department to generate such a list. Because the designers of the original system did not anticipate this request, there is no application program on hand to meet it. There is, however, an application program to generate the list of all customers. The bank officer has now two choices: either obtain the list of all customers and extract the needed information manually or ask a system programmer to write the necessary application program. Both alternatives are obviously unsatisfactory. Suppose that such a program is written, and that, several days later, the same officer needs to trim that list to include only those customers who have an account balance of $10,000 or more. As expected, a program to generate such a list does not exist. Again, the officer has the preceding two options, neither of which is satisfactory.
The point here is that conventional file-processing environments do not allow needed data to be retrieved in a convenient and efficient manner. More responsive data-retrieval systems are required for general use.
3. Concurrent Execution - Concurrent execution means when multiple users access the same data at same time.

Concurrent Execution-DBMS vs File System

Concurrent Operations restrict by OS 
•R<->W (If one user is reading, then other user cannot be write ). 
•W<->R/W (If one user is writing, then other user cannot be read or write).
File  (Database)

U1: update student S1
U2: update student S3
OS controls concurrency at file levels. i.e. OS does not allow both the users to update simultaneously even both the users update different data’s i.e. S1 & S3.
To avoid this problem – 
DBMS allows/controls at record level. 
U1: update S1
    LOCK (S1 Record)
U2: update S3
    LOCK (S3 record)
concurrency (DBMS vs File System)
 4. Security - Operating System gives file level security. For example, Student is a single file which contains various fields like SID, Sname, Marks, Address ..  A password can be set to Student file but not to its fields. So here, Os level security is managed by password. If password matches, then the user will see the entire data.
DBMS provides different level of security. For instance, in the student file security will be decided according to 
  • Faculty can see SID, Sname, Marks only
  • Admin can see SID, Sname, Marks and Address.
if two file are made for faculty as well as for admin, then there will be problem of data redundancy.

DBMS provides security by VIRTUAL TABLE (VIEWS) – View is a virtual table that refers to physical table.

view example (DBMS vs File System)

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