getline c, get c, put c and write c – Unformatted stream I/O functions

  • getline c, get c, put c and write c – These functions are called unformatted stream IO functions where
    • get() and put() can handle single character input and output and
    • getline() and write() can handle multi character input and output.
  • Header files for these above functions : “iostream.h”

getline c, get c, put c and write c

Single character functions : get() and put()

Single Character functions are used for reading and displaying a single character respectively. These functions are :

  • get() :
    • The get() function is an input function.
    • It fetches a single character and store it in a character variable.
    • The get() is a member function of istream class and it is involved with an istream object cin.
    • char ch;
      cin.get(ch); // get a character from keyboard and assign it to ch.
  • put() :
    • The function put() is an output function and is used to output a character at a time.
    • The put() function is also a member of ostream class and is involved with an ostream object cout.
    • cout.put('a');
Example of get() and put() :
char ch;
while (cin.get(ch)!='\n')
cout<<ch;
  • The above code keeps on accepting and displaying characters until a new line character (typed by pressing enter key) is encountered.
  • The difference between cin>>ch and cin.get(ch) is that when >> operator is used, the white spaces (e.g. tabs) and newline characters are ignored where as it is not so with cin.get(ch).
char ch;
cin.get(ch);
cout.put(ch);
cout.put(65)
  • The above code first input a character in variable ch  and prints it on the screen as given by cout.put(ch).
  • The line cout.put(65) will display ‘A’ on the screen as ASCII value of A is 65.
  • Thus, a number argument can also be given with put() and it will print equivalent character of that number.

Multi Character Functions : getline() and write()

The single character functions defined above can handle single character at a time and cannot handle multiple characters. To solve this problem, there are functions that can handle strings also. These functions are :

  • getline() –
    • The getline() is an input function and needs a line of text that ends with a newline character.
    • This function is used as shown below :
    • cin.getline(line, size);
      • where line specifies the name of the variable that will store the line of text, and
      • size specifies that maximum size-1 characters can be stored in line;
      • 1 extra character in size is reserved for null character ‘\0’.
  • write() –
    • The function write() is an output function and can display an entire line.
    • It takes the following form :
    • cout.write(line, size);
      • where line specifies the string variable whose contents are to be displayed, and
      • size specifies the number of characters to be displayes.
Example of getline() and write() :
char name[30];
cin.getline(name,30);
  •  The above code reads a line of text (max 29 valid characters) and stores it under variable name.
  • The function getline() can read white spaces (spaces, tabs etc.) and newline characters whereas cin>>name will not read any white space or newline character.
  •  For instance if you give following input : “Test Program” then
    • with getline() function, name will be having value “Test Program” but
    • when used with >>, name will be having Test only as any other character following a white space or newline character is ignored by >>.
    • After reading a string, cin automatically adds the terminator character ‘\0’ to the string.
cout.write(name, 3);
  •  if name stores value “Program”, then the above code will display “Pro” only.
  • Two write() functions can be combined together as shown below :
  • cout.write(string1, size1).write(string2, size2);
    • This statement prints string1 followed by string2 i.e. in the same line.
     

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